The Council of Co-operatives and Non State Enterprises (CCNSE) of Ninh Binh province and SNV cooperated in executing the Entrepreneurial Support Services (ESS) Project as part of the Income & Employment Generation (IEG) programme of SNV Vietnam. The IEG programme responds to the pressing need to absorb the fast growing labour surplus in rural areas. Specifically, there are areas where agriculture does not generate sufficient income and only part-time employment. Employment in state-owned enterprises has been declining and rural enterprises are still underdeveloped.