The Ministry of Education and Training (MoET) in Vietnam implemented a project to improve the quality of the primary teacher training system. The ultimate aim was to provide all children with access to skilled, knowledgeable and committed teachers able to bring new approaches to teaching and learning consistent with emphases in the new curriculum in its two stages. The 2007 survey of Student Achievements in Mathematics and Vietnamese Reading was a national, longitudinal study of student achievements (2001-2007-2011). The 2007 survey is useful in measuring the change in achievement levels from 2001 and is also important in terms of determining the extent to which the new primary curriculum has been adequately covered by Grade 5 students who are the first cohort to have completed the new curriculum. Thus although the survey of 2007 built on and improve on the preceding 2001 benchmark study, it must allow for comparisons to be made in order to assess learning outcomes.