The World Bank and DFID have been involved in the provision of rural transport in Vietnam through the Rural Transport 2 (RT2) programme. RT2 has provided investment funds and technical assistance to support rural transport infrastructure, policy and private sector development in the MoT and provinces. As part of this work RT2 supported the development of new strategies and policies within the MoT. This study informed this programme and the design of the third rural transport project (RT3).