Has globalization by-passed poorer developing countries with which Finland is intensifying its relations? What has happened to poverty and inequality in these countries? What does the impact of globalization look like from their perspective? This study endeavored to provide materials towards answering such questions for Mozambique, Nepal, Tanzania, and Vietnam – the main partner countries of Finland. Undertaken by a group of scholars from these countries, under the coordination of the Institute of Development Studies (IDS) at the University of Helsinki, the study was based on first-hand southern sources and direct experiences and provided a southern view of the impacts of what is called globalization.

This report mapped trends of anti-dumping and NME status since 1978 to date by both the US Department of Commerce (DoC) and the European Commission (EC) and uses China and Vietnam as case-studies throughout. The definitions as applied by the EC and the US DoC are presented and analysed comparatively to other developed and developing countries. A literature review was carried out that tried to measure the cost to a developing country from being classified as a NME, including discussion of the most recent application of Countervailing Duties (CVD’s) to China. The formal criteria specified by the EC and the US DoC were analysed against recent NME graduates, and non-graduates, and also countries that have never been classified.

The overall objective of the study was to assess how the trade and trade-related provisions of the FTA being negotiated between the EU and ASEAN could affect social, environmental and developmental issues in the EU area and in ASEAN member countries. 

The Project was the second stage of a policy study for the UNDP’s Regional Energy Programme for Poverty Reduction (REP-PoR). The ultimate goal of the project was to arrive at policy recommendations to governments and to the UNDP on how to minimise the negative impacts and increase the benefits of trade on the poor within the context of helping countries meet their Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The study as a whole had components at the global, regional and national levels. The overall project examines the linkages between international energy trade and poverty in the Asia-Pacific context. The study was supported by multiple national level case studies.