This was one of two country case studies looking at the topic of “social capital”, which describes how enterprise leaders work together with coordinating organizations (Corporations, Associations, Unions, Clubs, etc.) to improve their competitiveness. Business success comes from a balance of competition and cooperation. Vietnam has a long history of cooperation between enterprises, but the forms and purposes of cooperation are changing with the market economy. The Vietnam study focused exclusively on the leather and footwear industries in and around Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City.