This project involved research and the drafting of a Discussion Paper. This paper attempted to contribute to the current debate by examining the implications of Decree 10 for the accessibility of publicly provided health and education services, especially for the poor and near poor. This was achieved by analyzing the accessibility to social services and their affordability before and after the introduction of Decree 10. Using Vietnam’s own past experience with user charges as well as those of other developing countries, the paper provided an in-depth analysis of the affordability of health care services and basic education. The implications of Decree 10 for affordability of social services were then discussed using the available data from hospitals that implemented the decree.