This report mapped trends of anti-dumping and NME status since 1978 to date by both the US Department of Commerce (DoC) and the European Commission (EC) and uses China and Vietnam as case-studies throughout. The definitions as applied by the EC and the US DoC are presented and analysed comparatively to other developed and developing countries. A literature review was carried out that tried to measure the cost to a developing country from being classified as a NME, including discussion of the most recent application of Countervailing Duties (CVD’s) to China. The formal criteria specified by the EC and the US DoC were analysed against recent NME graduates, and non-graduates, and also countries that have never been classified.