In order to better inform its Southeast Asia grantmaking, the McKnight Foundation required research and preparation of a paper on the changing microfinance environment in Cambodia and Vietnam. One of the Foundation’s themes in the region has been support for projects addressing poverty and the lack of economic and/or employment opportunities. McKnight has supported and continues to support several microfinance projects in Cambodia and Vietnam to address this issue but wanted to learn more about the changes taking place to determine how effective microfinance schemes have been in addressing poverty and the lack of economic opportunities, which approaches are most effective in the current environment, and what resources are necessary to support the field. In particular, McKnight wanted to know whether continued Foundation investments make sense, and if so, what was the best way to target the program’s modest resources for greatest impact.