In 2006, the Ministry of Transport (MoT) of Vietnam requested JBIC to proceed with a new project management unit (PMU) management system to use for Japanese transport sector ODA projects. JBIC decided to review the implementing mechanisms of JBIC transport sector projects, identify issues and problems and examine measures for more effective and efficient implementation of JBIC projects through referencing revised legal documents. The study required the Consultant to review policies and legal documents regarding the implementation and management of JBIC ODA projects in Vietnam and to propose concrete recommendations taking into account lessons learned from the past and current projects implemented and managed by PMUs in various sectors in Vietnam.

There is currently a global debate with the development community regarding the relative merits of project type assistance vs budget support. As part of a wider study aimed at demonstrating the importance of project type assistance in conducting ODA funded infrastructure development, Mekong Economics Ltd. was responsible for carrying out a survey designed to investigate the effectiveness of JBICs (formally OECF) assistance in the rehabilitation of National Highways 1 and 5. The effectiveness of the two projects was assessed using the five pillars of the Paris Declaration as a framework (Ownership, Alignment, Harmonisation, Managing for Development Results and Mutual Accountability). The study was created by combining the results from government and stakeholder interviews with existing data in order to provide an insight into the effectiveness of carrying out the two projects through project type assistance.