The China Enterprise Survey 2010 (China ES 2010) is a World Bank Group (the World Bank) program that with the goal of standardization in order to reduce measurement error and improve cross- country comparability with other enterprise surveys. The goals is to make the China ES 2010 fully compatible with the approach of the Enterprise surveys that the Enterprise Analysis Unit of the World Bank has been implementing for the last four years in other regions of the world. Standardizing survey instruments, survey methodology and survey implementation serves to significantly reduce measurement error and improves cross-country comparability. 

This report mapped trends of anti-dumping and NME status since 1978 to date by both the US Department of Commerce (DoC) and the European Commission (EC) and uses China and Vietnam as case-studies throughout. The definitions as applied by the EC and the US DoC are presented and analysed comparatively to other developed and developing countries. A literature review was carried out that tried to measure the cost to a developing country from being classified as a NME, including discussion of the most recent application of Countervailing Duties (CVD’s) to China. The formal criteria specified by the EC and the US DoC were analysed against recent NME graduates, and non-graduates, and also countries that have never been classified.