The topic of the project was the long-term impacts of Finnish aid in forestry and rural development. Forestry and forest-related activities has been one 'sector' that has been consistently emphasized in Finnish development co-operation. Yet the forms, and no doubt the impacts, of forestry aid interventions have greatly changed over time. Rural development is a related, more recent addition to Finnish development efforts and one that has gained in importance and continues to be pursued. Common to both forestry and rural development aid is that social and cultural aspects have asserted their importance and become more integrated over the years. That has made the interventions ever more multifaceted and their impacts ever more varied.